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The state of the world's plant genetic resources for food and agriculture

Tipo de material: Libro
 Libro impreso(a) Editor: Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1998Descripción: xxv, 510 páginas : mapas ; 24 centímetros.Tipo de contenido: Texto Tipo de medio: Sin medio Tipo de portador: VolumenISBN: 9251040737; 9789251040737.Tema(s): Recursos de germoplasma vegetal | Cultivos alimenticios | Genética vegetal | Variación genéticaClasificación: 631.523 / T4 Número de sistema: 9530Contenidos:Mostrar
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Acervo General 631.523 T4 Disponible ECO010020185

Acronyms and Abbreviations.. Preface.. Chapter 1.. The State of Diversity.. 1.1 Introduction.. 1.2 Diversity Within and Between Plant Species.. 1.2.1 The diversity of plant species.. 1.2.2 Diversity within species.. 1.3 Origins of PGRFA and The Interdependence of Countries on PGRFA.. 1.4 The Value of Plant Genetic Resources For Food and Agriculture.. 1.4.1 The types of value of genetic resources and genetic diversity.. 1.4.2 The value of genetic diversity to small farmers.. 1.4.3 The value of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture in modern varieties.. 1.4.4 Indicators of the monetary value of PGRFA to food and agricultural production.. 1.5 Genetic Vulnerability and Genetic Erosion.. 1.5.1 Genetic vulnerability.. 1.5.2 Genetic erosion.. 1.6 Assessment of Major Needs -- An Integrated Approach To The Conservation And Utilization of PGRFA.. Chapter 2.. The State of in Situ Management.. 2.1 Introduction.. 2.2 Inventories and Surveys.. 2.3 Conservation of PGRFA In Protected Areas.. 2.4 Ecosystem Management For Conservation of PGRFA Outside Protected Areas.. 2.5 On-Farm Conservation.. 2.5.1 Examples of on-farm conservation.. 2.5.2 Strengthening on-farm conservation and development.. 2.6 Assessment of Major Needs For In Situ Management of PGRFA.. Chapter 3.. The State of Ex Situ Conservation.. 3.1 Introduction.. 3.2 Collecting.. 3.3 Types of Collections.. 3.3.1 Crop species covered.. 3.3.2 Types of material stored.. 3.3.3 Sources of material in genebanks.. 3.3.4 Coverage of collections and remaining gaps.. 3.4 Storage Facilities.. 3.4.1 Long-, medium- and short-term seed genebank facilities.. 3.4.2 Field genebanks and in vitro facilities.. 3.5 Security of Stored Material.. 3.5.1 State of duplication.. 3.5.2 The need for regeneration.. 3.6 Documentation and Characterization.. 3.6.1 Documentation.. 3.6.2 Characterization.. 3.7 Germplasm Movement.. 3.8 Botanical Gardens.. 3.8.1 Conservation facilities and statistics.. 3.8.2 Documentation and germplasm exchange.. 3.9 Assessment of Major Ex Situ Needs.. Chapter 4.. The State of Utilization.. 4.1 Introduction.. 4.2 Utilization and Major Constraints To the Use of Conserved PGRFA.. 4.2.1 Distribution and utilization of plant genetic resources.. 4.2.2 Constraints to germplasm use.. 4.3 Review of Utilization Activities.. 4.3.1 Evaluation of PGRFA.. 4.3.2 Pre-breeding (genetic enhancement).. 4.3.3 Plant breeding and other crop improvement programmes.. 4.3.4 Seed supply programmes.. 4.3.5 Marketing and processing.. 4.4 Deployment of Genetic Diversity in Agricultural Production Systems.. 4.4.1 Introduction.. 4.4.2 Breeding for resistance to pests and diseases.. 4.4.3 Breeding for other traits.. 4.5 Assessment of Major Needs To Improve the Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources.. Chapter 5.. The State of National Programmes, Training Needs and Legislation.. 5.1 Introduction.. 5.2 National Programmes.. 5.2.1 Purpose and basic functions of national programmes.. 5.2.2 Types of national programmes.. 5.2.3 State of development of national programmes.. 5.2.4 Funding of national programmes.. 5.2.5 Role of the public, private and informal sectors.. 5.3 Training.. 5.4 National Legislation.. 5.4.1 Access to genetic resources.. 5.4.2 Phytosanitary regulations.. 5.4.3 Seed regulations.. 5.4.4 Plant breeders’ rights.. 5.4.5 Other policies which affect the conservation and utilization of PGRFA.. 5.5 Assessment of the Major Needs For National Programme Development, Training and Legislation.. Chapter 6.. The State of Regional and International Collaboration.. 6.1 Introduction.. 6.2 Collaboration At Regional and Sub-Regional Levels.. 6.2.1 Regional and sub-regional networks.. 6.2.2 Crop-specific networks.. 6.2.3 Regional review of plant genetic resources networks and associated crop networks.. 6.2.4 Sub-regional collaboration for ex situ collections.. 6.3 International Programmes.. 6.3.1 FAO.. 6.3.2 International Agricultural Research Centres.. 6.3.3 Other intergovernmental and international organizations.. 6.3.4 Bilateral programmes.. 6.3.5 Programmes of private foundations and NGOs.. 6.4 International Agreements.. 6.4.1 The FAO International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources.. 6.4.2 The Convention on Biological Diversity.. 6.4.3 Other international agreements.. 6.5 The Global System For the Conservation and Utilization of PGRFA.. 6.5.1 International Network of Ex Situ Collections.. 6.5.2 International Code of Conduct for Plant Germplasm Collecting and Transfer.. 6.5.3 Draft Code of Conduct on Biotechnology.. 6.5.4 The World Information and Early Warning System on Plant Genetic Resources (WIEWS).. 6.6 Assessment of Major Needs To Improve International Collaboration

Chapter 7.. Access To Plant Genetic Resources, The Sharing of Benefits Derived From Their Use And The Realization of Farmers’ Rights.. 7.1 Introduction.. 7.2 The Legal And Policy Framework.. 7.3 The State of Access To Plant Genetic Resources.. 7.3.1 Exchange of plant genetic resources from in situ conditions and ex situ collections.. 7.3.2 Exchange of improved crop varieties.. 7.3.3 Restrictions on access.. 7.3.4 Regulation of access.. 7.4 Benefits Derived From the Conservation And Utilization of PGRFA.. 7.4.1 Global benefits derived from the conservation and utilization of PGRFA.. 7.4.2 The state of benefit-sharing between countries.. 7.4.3 The state of benefit-sharing with regard to farmers and communities.. 7.5 Financing PGRFA Activities.. 7.6 Implementation of Farmers’ Rights.. 7.7 Conclusions.. Annex 1-1.. Methods For Analysing And Assessing Genetic Diversity, Erosion and Vulnerability.. A1-1.1 Introduction.. A1-1.2 Methods For Assessing or Analysing Genetic Diversity.. A1-1.2.1 Taxonomic analysis of inter-species diversity.. A1-1.2.2 Analysis of intra-specific diversity.. A1-1.2.3 Use of indigenous and traditional knowledge for analysing useful diversity.. A1-1.2.4 Transfer of molecular marker technologies to developing countries.. A1-1.3 Some Useful Applications of Methods For Assessing Genetic Diversity.. A1-1.3.1 Guiding collecting priorities or designation of in situ or on-farm conservation areas.. A1-1.3.2 Use of genetic diversity assessments to monitor genetic erosion.. A1-1.3.3 Determining the evolutionary history of crops.. A1-1.3.4 Use of genetic diversity assessments to guide the management of germplasm collections.. A1-1.3.5 Genetic diversity analysis and germplasm utilization.. A1-1.3.6 Use of genetic diversity assessments to monitor genetic vulnerability.. A1-1.3.7 Use of genetic diversity assessments to monitor the transfer of genetic resources.. Annex 1-2.. Methods For Conservation.. A1-2.1 Introduction.. A1-2.2 Collecting.. A1-2.3 Technologies and Methods For Ex Situ Conservation.. A1-2.3.1 Storage of seeds in conventional seed genebanks.. A1-2.3.2 Maintenance of living plants in field genebanks.. A1-2.3.3 In vitro storage.. A1-2.3.4 Pollen storage.. A1-2.3.5 Ultra-dry seed storage.. A1-2.3.6 Conservation of DNA or DNA sequences.. A1-2.3.7 Botanical gardens.. A1-2.4 Types of Ex Situ Collections.. A1-2.5 Management of Ex Situ Collections.. A1-2.5.1 Duplication.. A1-2.5.2 Regeneration of genebank accessions.. A1-2.5.3 Passport, characterization and evaluation data.. A1-2.5.4 Germplasm health aspects of ex situ management.. A1-2.6 Methods For In Situ Conservation.. A1-2.6.1 Conservation of species and ecosystems.. A1-2.6.2 Protected Areas.. A1-2.6.3 On-farm management and improvement of plant genetic resources.. Annex 1-3.. Methods For Utilization of PGRFA Through Plant Breeding.. A1-3.1 Introduction.. A1-3.2 Plant Breeding: Goal Setting.. A1-3.3 Plant Breeding: Generating New Combinations.. A1-3.3.2 Incorporation.. A1-3.4 Plant Breeding: Selection.. A1-3.4.1 Selection procedures for inbred pure lines.. A1-3.4.2 Selection procedures for open-pollinated populations.. A1-3.4.3 Selection procedures for hybrid varieties.. A1-3.4.4 Selection procedures for clones.. A1-3.5 Plant Breeding: Release and Distribution.. Annex 1-4.. Legal and Economic Methods Relevant To PGRFA.. A1-4.1 Methods for Valuating PGRFA.. A1-4.2 Possible Mechanisms For Realizing The Value of Genetic Resources and of Related Innovations.. A1-4.2.1 Intellectual Property Rights.. A1-4.2.2 Contracts.. A1-4.3 International Funding Mechanisms.. Annex 2.. State of Diversity of Major and Minor Crops.. A2.1 Introduction.. A2.2 State of Diversity of Major Crops.. A2.2.1 State of wheat genetic resources.. A2.2.2 State of rice genetic resources.. A2.2.3 State of maize genetic resources.. A2.2.4 State of sorghum genetic resources.. A2.2.5 State of millet genetic resources.. A2.2.6 State of cassava genetic resources.. A2.2.7 State of potato genetic resources.. A2.2.8 State of sweet potato genetic resources.. A2.2.9 State of banana/plantain (Musa spp.) genetic resources.. A2.2.10 State of genetic resources of common bean and related species (Phaseolus).. A2.2.11 State of soybean genetic resources.. A2.2.12 State of sugar cane genetic resources.. A2.2.13 State of forages and rangeland crop genetic resources.. A2.3 State of Diversity of Minor Crops.. Appendix 1.. Status By Country of National Legislation, Programmes and Activities For PGRFA.. Appendix 2.. List of Major Germplasm Accessions By Crop And Institute.. Acronyms.. Appendix.. Regions of Diversity of Cultivated Plants.. Introduction

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